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Health Care for Older Immigrants Sees Momentum Among States

Seguro de salud para inmigrantes cobra fuerza en EE.UU.


CHICAGO (AP) — Most mornings, 62-year-old María Elena Estamilla wakes up with pelvic pain and dread that she faces the same fate as her mother and grandmother: fatal cervical cancer.

The Chicago woman’s last full medical exam was in 2015 and she sees no options for care as a Mexican immigrant without permission to live in the U.S. She’s not eligible for Medicare, Medicaid, or Affordable Care Act coverage. As a childcare worker, she didn’t have employer coverage. She can’t afford private insurance.

But things may soon change.

Illinois is among a handful of Democratic-run states extending health insurance coverage to adult immigrants in the country illegally, including seniors. The state, which became the first to offer a Medicaid-like program for older immigrants last year, used a new budget to expand the program. California followed suit, including coverage for those 50 and over in the latest budget. And Oregon’s governor signed a plan last week offering benefits to low-income immigrants over 19. New York advocates are banking on the momentum to do the same.

Supporters say the trend is crucial during a coronavirus pandemic that has left immigrants, who are disproportionately essential workers, more vulnerable to COVID-19 and as federal remedies, like an immigration overhaul or “public option” health insurance, face tough political odds. While opponents question the cost and using taxpayer funding, experts believe it will ultimately save money and address looming issues with an aging immigrant population.

“This program can’t come any faster for me because of the pain and discomfort I feel,” Estamilla said. “I’m very scared.”

Immigrants, both with legal status and without, are more likely to be uninsured than citizens.

Among those under 65, roughly 46% of immigrants in the country illegally don’t have insurance, compared with about 25% of immigrants with legal status. About 9% of citizens are uninsured, according to a Kaiser Family Foundation analysis in July, which didn’t include data for those over 65.

Barriers include cost and limited options. For instance, green card holders must wait five years for Medicaid eligibility.

When it comes to using public benefits, there are also concerns about repercussions like deportation. A Trump administration rule denying green cards to immigrants who used public benefits had a chilling effect. Use of food stamps declined 37% among noncitizens from 2016 to 2019, according to a Migration Policy Institute study in December.

Esther Corpuz, CEO of Alivio Health Center, said enrolling people in services remains difficult even after the Biden administration scrapped the “public charge” rule. Alivio runs Chicago-area clinics serving 50,000 patients, mainly immigrants without legal status.

“There still is that fear if they sign up for some kind of governmental benefit … that will be used against them in the future,” she said.

In recent years, about half a dozen states have focused on health coverage for immigrant children and young adults without legal status. Illinois, California, Oregon are among those covering children. Last year, California began offering public insurance for all low-income residents under 26.

But focusing on older immigrants is becoming more urgent, experts say.

Immigrants are more likely to remain in the U.S. compared with two decades ago, according to Arturo Vargas Bustamante, a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles’ Fielding School of Public Health. According to a July study he co-wrote, immigrants’ median age increased from 37 to 45 between 2000 and 2018.

Without action, America faces a health care crisis as immigrants age, Bustamante said, adding that offering insurance will save money by reducing reliance on emergency rooms.

Leaders in Illinois and California say their solution is inching toward coverage for all, which also makes the high cost more politically palatable.

“Look at what immigrants do for our economy,” Democratic Illinois House Speaker Emanuel “Chris” Welch said. “Including them in our health insurance, it keeps them healthy and allows them to go to work and compete and be able to contribute.”

The state dedicated $36 million of its recent $42 billion budget to expand coverage from those 65 and older to those 55 and older, including immigrants with legal status who don’t yet qualify for other help and those in the country illegally. More than 5,100 people have applied since December. Supporters estimate at least 12,000 will be eligible when the expansion kicks in next year.

California will spend $1.3 billion for a Medicaid expansion starting in 2022 that covers expenses for roughly 235,000 low-income immigrants 50 and older who are in the country illegally.

Oregon Gov. Kate Brown’s office said the state’s expansion will cover eligible low-income immigrant adults regardless of status, but health officials can narrow criteria to fit spending limits set by lawmakers. Up to 80,000 people could enroll.




CHICAGO (AP) — Illinois y otros estados gobernados por los demócratas están ampliando su seguro de salud para incluir a inmigrantes adultos, incluso ancianos, que se encuentran en el país sin autorización. El estado, el primero que ofreció un programa similar al Medicaid, el seguro de salud para ancianos, lo amplió este año con el nuevo presupuesto. California siguió el ejemplo al incluir en su último presupuesto la cobertura para los mayores de 50 años. Y el gobernador de Oregón firmó la semana pasada un plan que ofrece beneficios a los inmigrantes mayores de 19 años. Los promotores de los derechos de los inmigrantes en Nueva York esperan aprovechar el impulso para lograr medidas similares.

Los impulsores dicen que la tendencia es crucial durante una pandemia de coronavirus en la que los inmigrantes, que en gran proporción son trabajadores esenciales, suelen ser de los más vulnerables, y las medidas federales como la reforma migratoria enfrentan una fuerte oposición política. Los opositores cuestionan el costo y el uso del dinero de los contribuyentes, pero los expertos dicen dicha tendencia ahorrará dinero y ayudará a resolver los problemas inminentes de una población que envejece.

La falta de seguro médico afecta más a los inmigrantes, autorizados o no, que a los ciudadanos.

El 46% de los inmigrantes menores de 65 años que se encuentran sin autorización en el país carece de seguro, comparado con el 25% de los que gozan de un estatus legal. Alrededor del 9% de los ciudadanos carece de seguro médico, de acuerdo con un análisis de la Kaiser Family Foundation realizado en julio, que no incluye datos sobre los mayores de 65 años.

Los obstáculos incluyen el costo y la falta de opciones. Por ejemplo, los que tienen la Green Card (residencia legal) deben esperar cinco años para poder optar por el Medicaid.

Tratándose de las prestaciones públicas, también existe el temor a las consecuencias como la deportación. El gobierno del presidente Donald Trump aprobó una norma que negó la residencia a los inmigrantes usuarios de prestaciones públicas. El uso de prestaciones alimenticias disminuyó en 37% entre los no ciudadanos del 2016 al 2019, según un estudio del Instituto de Políticas de Migración publicado en diciembre.

Los temores persisten a pesar de que el gobierno de Joe Biden anuló la norma de Trump, dijo Esther Corpuz, CEO del Centro de Salud Alivio, una cadena de clínicas que atiende a 50.000 pacientes, en su mayoría inmigrantes sin estatus legal.

“Persiste el temor de que si solicitan algún tipo de prestación del gobierno… se lo utilizará en su contra en el futuro”, dijo.

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